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Compression bombs that use the zip formatmust cope with the fact that DEFLATE,the compression algorithm most commonly supported by zip parsers,cannot achieve a compression ratio greater than 1032.For this reason, zip bombs typically rely on recursive decompression,nesting zip files within zip files to get an extra factor of 1032 with each layer.But the trick only works on implementations thatunzip recursively, and most do not.The best-known zip bomb,42.zip,expands to a formidable 4.5 PBif all six of its layers are recursively unzipped,but a trifling 0.6 MB at the top layer.Zip quines,like those of Ellingsenand Cox,which contain a copy of themselvesand thus expand infinitely if recursively unzipped,are likewise perfectly safe to unzip once.
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This description of the zip format omits many details thatare not needed for understanding the zip bomb.For full information,refer tosection 4.3 of APPNOTE.TXTor The structure of a PKZip file by Florian Buchholz,or see the source code.
As a safe but not necessarily optimal compromise,our zip bomb will use filenames consisting of charactersdrawn from a 36-character alphabetthat does notrely on case distinctionsor use special characters:
Suppose we want a zip bomb that expands to4.5 PB,the same size that 42.zip recursively expands to.How big must the zip file be?Using binary search, we find that the smallestzip file whose unzipped size exceeds the unzipped size of 42.ziphas a zipped size of46 MB.
DEFLATE is the most common compression algorithmused in the zip format, but it is only one of many options.Probably the second most common algorithm is bzip2,while not as compatible as DEFLATE,is probably the second most commonly supported compression algorithm.Empirically, bzip2 has a maximum compression ratio of about 1.4 million,which allows for denser packing of the kernel.Ignoring the loss of compatibility,does bzip2 enable a more efficient zip bomb?
In related work,Plötz et al.used overlapping files to create anear-self-replicating zip file.Gynvael Coldwindhas previously suggested (slide 47)overlapping files.Pellegrino et al.found systems vulnerable to compression bombsand other resource exhaustion attacksand listed common pitfalls in specification,implementation, and configuration.
We have designed the quoted-overlap zip bomb construction for compatibility,taking into consideration a number of implementation differences,some of which are shown in the table below.The resulting construction is compatible with zip parsers that workin the usual back-to-front way,first consulting the central directoryand using it as an index of files.Among these is the examplezip parser included in Nail,which is automatically generated from a formal grammar.The construction is not compatible, however,with "streaming" parsers,those that parse the zip file from beginning to end in one passwithout first reading the central directory.By their nature, streaming parsersdo not permit any kind of file overlapping.The most likely outcome is that theywill extract only the first file.They may even raise an error besides,as is the case with sunzip,which parses the central directory at the end and checks it for consistencywith the local file headers it has already seen.
If you need the extracted files to start with a certain prefix(so that they will be identified as a certain file type, for example),you can insert a data-carrying DEFLATE block just before theblock that quotes the next header.Not every file has to participate in the bomb construction:you can include ordinary filesalongside the bomb filesif you need the zip file to conform to some higher-level format.(The source code has a --templateoption to facilitate this use case.)Many file formats use zip as a container;examples are Java JAR, Android APK, and LibreOffice documents.
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Compatibility of selected zip parsers with various zip features,edge cases,and zip bomb constructions.The background colors indicate a scale from less restrictive to more restrictive.For best compatibility,use DEFLATE compression without Zip64,match names in central directory headers and local file headers,compute correct CRCs,and avoid the maximum values of 32-bit and 16-bit fields.
A version of this articleappeared at theUSENIX WOOT 2019workshop.The workshop talkvideo, slides, and transcriptare available.The source code of the paper is available.The artifactsprepared for submission are zipbomb-woot19.zip.
I tried the zip bombs against a local installation of addons-server,which is part of the software behind addons.mozilla.org.The system handles it gracefully,imposing a time limitof 110 s on extraction.The zip bomb expands as fast as the disk will let it up to the time limit,but after that point the process is killed and the unzipped filesare eventually automatically cleaned up.
2019-07-05:I noticed that CVE-2019-13232was assigned for UnZip.Personally, I would dispute that UnZip's (or any zip parser's)ability to process a zip bomb of the kind discussed herenecessarily represents a security vulnerability, or even a bug.It's a natural implementation and does not violate the specificationin any way that I can tell.The type discussed in this article is only one type of zip bomb,and there are many ways in which zip parsing can go wrong that are not bombs.If you want to defend against resource exhaustion attacks,you should not try to enumerate, detect, and blockevery individual known attack;rather you should impose external limits on time and other resourcesso that the parser cannot misbehave too much,no matter what kind of attack it faces.There is nothing wrong with attempting to detect and reject certainconstructions as a first-pass optimization,but you can't stop there.If you do not eventually isolate and limitoperations on untrusted data, your system is likely still vulnerable.Consider an analogy with cross-site scripting in HTML:the right defense is not to try and filter out bytes that may be interpreted as code,it's to escape everything properly.
flying_gel:"If I unzip this onto a compressed zfs dataset, will the resulting file be small? Edit: Just did a small test with a 42KB->5.5GB zip bomb. I ended up with 165MB worth of files so while just 3% of the full bomb, it's still a 4028 times inflation. ... I only have the standard LZ4 compression enabled, no dedup."
Dzmitry Plotnikau sent me a report saying thata zip bomb could use up all cache storageon iPhones running iOS 12 and 13, even if only opened using "Quick look."The exhaustion of storage could have various side effects,including misbehaving apps, deletion of local cloud files, and OS crashes,in some cases requiring a factory reset to remedy.The bug was mitigated in iOS 14.0(and likely other, contemporaneous point release of iOS and iPadOS).See HT211850under the "libarchive" heading.
Then, we performed a few more test actions, for example placing a bomb with our avatar, and collected the corresponding network samples. Further analysis revealed a few additional properties of the protocol, which we put in the outline of the game protocol below.
After injecting the Frida script and clicking on the bomb button, we noticed that the game desynchronized for a second. To our surprise, it teleported us to the new position instead of placing a bomb there. Happy with this result too, we decided not to dive into it any further and leverage this unexpected behavior to its maximum, as we already had everything scripted in Frida.